Исторический калейдоскоп «Царь Пётр I – великий преобразователь русского государства»

Здравствуйте, дорогие друзья и гости блога имени В.Г. Белинского!

В рамках проведения  XXVI Димитриевских образовательных чтений библиотека им. В.Г. Белинского представляет вашему вниманию онлайн мероприятие «Царь Пётр I – великий преобразователь русского государства». 

Наше мероприятие проводится в рамках проекта БРЭ. Предлагаем вам собрать онлайн-мозаику статьи из БРЭ «Начало преобразований Петра I»

Начало преобразований Петра  I [Историческая справка] / Большая Российская энциклопедия: в 30-ти т. Т. «Россия». Россия. – Москва: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 2004. – 1007 с. – С. 310. – Текст: непосредственный.

9 июня 2022 года исполняется 350 лет со дня рождения Петра Первого – русского царя, первого российского императора, выдающегося государственного деятеля, дипломата и полководца. Мы даже не подозреваем, как многим обязаны Петру. Что бы мы ни взяли – алфавит, газеты, дороги, одежду, еду, армию, флот и многое другое — всё это связано с его именем. Энергичный, целеустремлённый, жадный до новых знаний Пётр Великий вошёл в историю императором, сумевшим изменить облик России и ход истории на долгие века. 

Известный русский историк  С.М. Соловьёв , писал, что Пётр был действительно Великим, как и прозвали его в народе. Пётр не был славолюбцем. Он жил и трудился на благо народа и заботился только о народе. Он осознал, что его обязанность – вывести слабый, бедный, почти неизвестный народ из этого печального положения посредством цивилизации. Историк отзывается о Петре в восторженных тонах, приписывая ему все успехи России, как во внутренних делах, так и во внешней политике, он показал органичность и историческую подготовленность реформ: «Необходимость движения на новую дорогу была осознана; обязанности при этом определились: народ поднялся и собрался в дорогу; но кого-то ждали; ждали вождя; вождь явился».  Жизнь Петра была сложной, до сих пор её изучает множество историков, и выявляют всё новые и новые интересные факты. Об этой знаменитой личности снято много документальных и художественных фильмов, написано много трактатов, статей, романов, эссе, стихов.

Предлагаем вам посмотреть видео презентацию «Великий государь великого   государства»

На престол Пётр взошёл в 1682 году, когда ему исполнилось 10 лет. По словам современников, Пётр был высокого роста (2 м 5 см), худощавый, лицо смуглое, с правильными, но резкими чертами.

Пётр Алексеевич вошёл в историю России многими славными делами. Это был царь-преобразователь, царь-труженик. Пётр хотел, чтобы Россия ни силой, ни богатством не уступала ведущим державам мира.

 Он был сильным, крепким и выносливым человеком. Он привык много работать, и мало отдыхать. Сон его был коротким. Пётр поздно ложился спать, а уже в три или четыре часа утра – он уже на ногах. Казалось, ни лень, ни усталость ему неведомы. Чем только не увлекался этот мудрец: прекрасно рисовал, освоил работу каменщика, плотника, изучал зубоврачебное дело, даже хирургию.

Четырнадцать ремёсел смог одолеть Пётр Алексеевич. Он умел обращаться с топором и молотком, со сложными инструментами, механизмами и приборами. Знал, как построить корабль, и отлично управлялся с парусами. Он был хорошим бомбардиром, и послушное ему тяжёлое орудие вело точный огонь по нужной цели. За что он ни брался, всё у него получалось, дело в его руках спорилось. Он разбирался в медицине, прочёл множество книг, разговаривал на равных с учёными и инженерами. Побывал за границей, Пётр убедился, что там есть чему поучиться россиянам, и сделал всё возможное, чтобы перенять лучшее из того, что пришлось ему видеть в других странах.  

Это первый руководитель в русской истории, который много путешествовал и обучался ремёслам в европейских странах.

Роль Петра I в истории России сложно переоценить. Его считают великим реформатором, преобразователем. Результатом его работы стала новая форма правления – абсолютная монархия и создание дворянско-чиновничьего аппарата, которые кардинально изменили течение русской истории.

Военная, судебная реформы позволили России стать на равных с развитыми странами Европы, привели к значительному увеличению территории страны. Каждое государство существует за счет экономики, уровня формирования производительных сил. Огромный скачок в этом направлении переместил государство на новый этап развития. С именем Великого Петра связаны не только политические, экономические, но и культурные, просветительские, образовательные события. Так, например, Пётр делает общедоступным театральное искусство – «на Красной площади построена была деревянная комедиальная храмина – для всех». Он заботился о состоянии народа, стремился сделать его образованным. Ему предстояла трудная задача: для обучения русских людей он вызывал иностранных наставников, руководителей, которые, естественно, стремились подчинить учеников своему влиянию. Он хотел, чтобы обязательному обучению грамоте подлежало хотя бы дворянство. Историк С.М. Соловьёв писал, что Пётр заставлял переводить иностранные книги, причём перевод, приказывал царь, должен быть не дословный, а смысловой. Таким образом, для страны Пётр I сделал многое: при его правлении развивается добыча каменного угля и железной руды, металлургия, кожевенное производство, кораблестроение, военное ремесло, литература и искусство.

С.М. Соловьев значительно отличает Петра от своих предшественников: «Пётр не был царём в смысле своих предков, это был герой-преобразователь или, лучше сказать, основатель нового царства, новой империи и, чем более вдавался он в свою преобразовательную деятельность, тем более терял возможность быть похожим на своих предков; притом же и великая война прекратилась незадолго до его смерти». Русский писатель Н.В. Карамзин внёс немалую лепту в историю для понимания Петра I как личности и государственного деятеля. Он с особым интересом относился к личности Петра и его реформам. В 1798 г. у писателя даже появился замысел написать «Похвальную речь Петру I», однако он не был осуществлен. Описывая императора, Карамзин Н.В. пишет, что в необыкновенных усилиях Петра мы видим всю твердость его характера и власти самодержавной.

Предлагаем вам выставку-обзор «В начале славных дел»

Пётр I является, наверное, самым активным и деятельным императором из всей династии Романовых. Сегодня мы расскажем о самых главных преобразованиях Петра Великого. Царь Пётр изменил, ни много ни мало, систему государственного управления. Вместо Боярской думы и приказов были созданы Сенат — высший орган государственной власти, который принимал различные решения и законы, и Коллегии — высшие органы исполнительной власти, которые должны были выполнять решения Сената. За деятельностью этих органов следил сам царь с помощью фискалов, генерал-ревизора и генерал-прокурора. Реформа армии считается одной из самых грандиозных в послужном списке Петра I. Во многом, это из-за того, что в первых боях Северной войны полки старого строя терпели поражения. Армия теперь становилась регулярной, что осуществлялось с помощью рекрутских наборов: каждый год от 20 крестьянских дворов избирался один юноша 15-20 лет, который зачислялся на пожизненную службу в русскую армию. Все солдаты теперь получали образование в специально основанных артиллерийских, инженерных, навигационных школах. Обеспечение армии велось на высшем уровне: были созданы не только оружейные заводы, но и специальные продуктовые учреждения для снабжения солдат, а также были введены единые мундиры зеленого и синего цветов.

При Петре I был настоящий «бум» в сфере образования. Открывались инженерные, математические, горные, медицинские и навигационные школы, с 1714 года — бесплатные цифирные школы для всего населения, гимназии, Академия наук. Притом, царь постановил, что дворяне обязательно должны были получить образование, а некоторых он даже отправлял учиться за границу. При Петре Россия перешла и к новой письменности. Вместо старославянских букв и цифр были приняты гражданский шрифт и арабские цифры. А еще в русском языке в годы правления Петра появилось около 2,5 тысяч новых иностранных слов. В 1711 году в России стала издаваться первая печатная газета – «Ведомости».

Для успешного развития торговли с зарубежными странами России был нужен выход в Балтийское и Чёрные моря. При Петре был сделан шаг к овладению Чёрным морем: российским войскам удалось взять турецкую крепость Азов. На Азовском море – а оно совсем рядом с Чёрным – по расположению Петра был заложен город-порт Таганрог. Главным делом жизни царя Петра I стала борьба за выход России к Балтийскому морю. Он знал, что когда-то давно Балтийское побережье было русским, и ещё князь Александр Невский прославился победой над шведами. Пётр I решил вернуть русские земли. Долгой и упорной – более двадцати лет – была борьба за побережье Балтийского моря. Соседняя Швеция не желала подпускать Россию к Балтике. Армия под командованием молодого шведского короля Карла XII разбила россиян под городом Нарвой. Пётр не пал духом и бросил все силы на создание хорошо обученной, дисциплинированной и вооруженной современным оружием армии. Он не остановился даже перед тем, чтобы из-за нехватки металла воспользоваться церковными колоколами. По приказу царя их снимали со звонниц храмов и везли на переплавку. Так было отлито триста отличных пушек.

Петра I называют отцом российского флота. Он положил начало морскому делу и кораблестроению в стране. Пристрастие к флоту было у Петра с детства. В детстве его очень привлекали разнообразные технические новинки, к примеру, астролябия. А знаменитый ботик, найденный царем в сарае Н. И. Романова, стал знаменитым «дедушкой русского флота», на котором Петр I лично постиг все азы мореходства. Именно после катания на ботике по Плещееву озеру царь стал вынашивать планы по созданию мощного флота. Потешная флотилия, спущенная на воду Плещеева озера в мае 1692 года, стала прообразом русского флота. В то время все передовые страны уже обзавелись военными флотами, и России предстояло сделать большой рывок, чтобы качественно и количественно сравняться с соперниками на море. Пётр решил создать флот на Белом море. В Архангельск – единственный порт, которым располагало тогда Русское государство, – он выехал 4 июля 1693 г. В этом же году был построен первый морской корабль «Святой Павел» (полное название «Святой апостол Павел», также известен как «Апостол Павел»). Из порта Архангельска он вышел в море под бело-сине-красным флагом с золотым двуглавым орлом по центру. В 1705 г. это полотнище стало русским торговым флагом, а почти тремя столетиями позже, в 1991-м, – государственным символом России. А после визита в Архангельск вопрос считался решённым. Один корабль заказали в Англии, два под руководством Франца Лефорта – будущего первого адмирала русского флота заложили сами. А царь отправился обратно на Плещеево озеро руководить строительством новых кораблей лично.

Предлагаем вам изготовить вместе с нами корабль с парусом в технике оригами

За короткий срок Россия обзавелась первоклассными военными судами, оснащёнными десятками орудий. Стремясь пробиться к берегам Балтики и утвердиться там, царь приказывает в устье реки Невы, на Заячьем острове, заложить новый город – Санкт-Петербург. На острове Котлин была построена морская крепость Кронштадт. Исполнение замыслов царя требовало огромных денег, неимоверного напряжения сил всего народа. И Пётр, добиваясь осуществления своих грандиозных планов, не щадил ни себя, ни других. Жестокостью, суровыми наказаниями, страхом он заставлял выполнять свою волю. Не даром А.С. Пушкин заметил, что иные петровские указы, кажется, «писаны кнутом». И на суше, и на море Россия одерживает блистательные победы. Крупнейшим успехом петровской армии был полный разгром войск шведского короля Карла XII под Полтавой, а несколько лет спустя только что созданный российский флот устроил шведским кораблям «морскую Полтаву» в сражении при мысе Гангут. Военное могущество Швеции было сокрушено, Швеции пришлось заключить мир и уступить России побережье Балтийского моря. Так Царь Пётр «прорубил окно в Европу». После окончательной победы над Швецией царь Пётр I принял титул императора. Московская Русь стала Российской империей.

Во II половине XVII в. позиции Русской православной церкви были весьма прочными. Она сохраняла административную, финансовую и судебную автономию по отношению к царской власти.

В начале XVIII в. в России был проведён ряд мероприятий, которые вошли в историю как церковные реформы Петра I. Цель этих преобразований заключалась в кардинальном изменении системы управления православной церковью. Император хотел, чтобы церковь полностью подчинялась светской власти, а её административная и экономическая самостоятельность была ликвидирована.

Одним из главнейших преобразований стала фактическая ликвидация должности Патриарха и утверждение 25 января 1721 года нового высшего церковного органа — Святейшего правительствующего Синода, или Духовной Коллегии. Фактически Пётр упразднил церковную организацию и создал вместо неё Святейший Синод, все члены которого назначались царём. Пётр проводил политику веротерпимости, облегчив существование старообрядцев и разрешив свободно исповедовать свою веру иностранцам. Святейший Правительствующий Синод — высший орган церковного управления, созданный по приказу Петра I, с целью заменить упразднённую в 1700 году должность Патриарха.

5 февраля 1721 года — дата издания «Манифеста об учреждении Духовной коллегии».

25 февраля 1721 года — произошло официальное открытие Духовной коллегии, которая получила название Святейший Правительствующий Синод. Это событие стало завершающим в церковной реформе Петра I. Более подробно о взаимоотношениях Петра (помазанника) с церковью расскажет о. Александр Литвиненко

После того, как в 1721 году Россия как огромное и обладающее неоспоримой военной мощью государство была провозглашена империей, а её глава – императором, Пётр перенёс столицу государства из Москвы в Санкт-Петербург.

Этот город получил название в честь апостола святого Петра, который считался небесным покровителем Петра I. Сколько всего создал Пётр Великий, не поддаётся простому перечислению, но самое его значительное творение, которое не только живёт уже более трёх веков, но и активно развивается, – это город, созданный его руками, по его чертежам, носит его имя, и который император фактически подарил сам себе на день рождения. Санкт-Петербург стал одним из красивейших городов на Земле. Дата основания – 16 (27) мая 1703 г. Именно в этот день на берегах Невы, на одном из островов только что отвоёванной у шведов территории, заложили деревянную крепость, которую Пётр назвал Санкт-Петербургом. Пётр I провел поистине масштабные реформы в своей стране. Он сделал почти невозможное: страну со старым закоренелым строем и устоявшимися обычаями сумел изменить, притом, очень кардинально. Поэтому всем нам стоит знать интересные факты из жизни этой выдающейся личности, реформатора, 350-летие которого является значительной вехой сегодняшней России.

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Сын своего времени, воспитанник феодальной верхушки, он не мог совершить более того, что он совершил. Но и то, что он сделал за свою не очень-то долгую жизнь — для развития экономики и государственных установлений, армии и флота, внешней политики и военного искусства, культуры и быта, благодарная Россия, принявшая петровское наследие, осваивала и продолжала в течение почти двух столетий. Весьма немало вошло в наш национальный фонд навечно. Это возвращённые земли и выходы к морям и океанам, города и каналы, достижения промышленной и духовной культуры, героические деяния в труде и на полях сражений; наконец, развитие национального самосознания народов России.

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